When medical problems occur together they are called comorbidities. It's well-known that adults have comorbidities with low back pain. They report rheumatoid arthritis, dermatitis, diabetes, headaches, and others along with low back pain (LBP).
A recent study from the Back Research Center in Denmark looked at teens and young adults ages 12 to 22. They found a positive link between LBP, headaches, and asthma in this age group. They suspect some children are just frailer than others. This puts them at increased risk for problems.
The specific risk factors for back pain aren't known yet. More research is ongoing to find ways to prevent LBP in all ages.