There are several different schools of thought on this one. Some say it's best to keep doing the exercises as "prevention" of any future back problems. Others say it's probably safe to move on with your life. If you have any symptoms of back problems then you can get those exercises out and start them over again.
Researchers are trying to find out what exercise works best for each condition. It's possible that each person is different enough that a specific program is needed when injury occurs. A general program of activity and exercise may be all that's needed to prevent injury for most people.
Until more is known, stay active and seek help right away if your symptoms return.