There are many, many tests for use in assessing the psychologic status of chronic pain patients. These are called psychometric instruments. One of the most popular is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
The MMPI-2 is used by clinicians in a wide range of settings to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders. It can help show major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment. It's frequently used to assess chronic pain patients. It also helps doctors and therapists choose the best way to treat each person.
Most patients with an emotional or psychologic side to pain can be helped with counseling or behavioral therapy. Ask your doctor to refer you to someone who can give you this or other more appropriate tests for your situation.