Treating wrist fractures that aren't displaced is usually done with casting. A displaced fracture means the bones don't line up together. One side of the fracture has shifted up, down, or away from the other bone.
Casting a displaced fracture isn't a good idea because the bone heals in the misaligned position.
When casting a nondisplaced fracture, the wrist is out of action for a little over a month. It takes a few more weeks to get your motion and strength back when the cast comes off.
With surgery, a screw is placed to hold the two bones together. No cast is required so motion is restored sooner. You'll probably be able to get back to work sooner, depending on what you do.
There are always increased risks with surgery of any kind. Many doctors suggest treating the fracture with casting and watching it carefully. If X-rays show it isn't healing then surgery can be done at that time. Usually the need for further treatment is clear by six weeks.