I know that both neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons perform specialized spine surgeries. What are the potential differences between the two in terms of training?

These two professional disciplines used to be very distinct. Orthopedic surgeons did procedures that had to do with the bones of the spine, such as fusion. Neurosurgeons dealt more with conditions of the nerves that required surgeries like laminectomy.

Now there is a lot of overlap in both training and treatment. Neurosurgeons undergo training for cranial (brain) conditions in addition to the training they receive for problems of the spine. A neurosurgeon who intends to specialize in spine care will do training similar to an orthopedist who chooses to specialize in spine surgery.